Export Controls for Researchers
What kinds of exports are controlled?
Export control laws cover both “tangible” and “intangible” exports.
- Tangible: Shipping or taking controlled articles or items outside the U.S.
Example: sending advanced telecommunications hardware to a company in Turkey or taking a laptop on a trip abroad.
- Intangible: The release, transmission or disclosure of information (controlled software, technology, or data) to any foreign entity by any means such as email, telephone, website, or visual inspection.
Example: faxing blueprints of a biological fermenter to a researcher in Japan or emailing technical data to a graduate student in Argentina.
The laws also covers “deemed exports.”
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