Export Controls for Researchers

What kinds of exports are controlled?

Export control laws cover both “tangible” and “intangible” exports.

  • Tangible: Shipping or taking controlled articles or items outside the U.S.

Example: sending advanced telecommunications hardware to a company in Turkey or taking a laptop on a trip abroad.

  • Intangible: The release, transmission or disclosure of information (controlled software, technology, or data) to any foreign entity by any means such as email, telephone, website, or visual inspection.

Example: faxing blueprints of a biological fermenter to a researcher in Japan or emailing technical data to a graduate student in Argentina.

The laws also covers “deemed exports.”

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